Table of Contents

Home Page: PR Voting

My PR Journey

Electoral Systems

Electoral Systems: Navigating the Maze

System Descriptions

Electoral System: Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP)

Electoral System: Single Transferable Vote (STV)

Electoral System: Party List

Electoral System: Cumulative Voting

Electoral System: Limited Voting

Electoral System: Parallel Voting

Electoral System: Fusion Voting

Proportional and Parliamentary: Often Paired, but They Don’t Have to Be

Neither Fish nor Fowl: the Special Case of Ranked Ballots in Presidential Primaries

Models & Maps

Models & Maps: A Comparative Systems Analysis

Models & Maps: Proportional Elections

Models & Maps: Semi-Proportional Elections

Single Transferable Vote

STV: Beating the "Shoo-In” Effect in Multi-Winner Elections With Surplus Transfer

Non-reciprocal ethnic cohesion in STV rankings

STV: How Important Is the "T"?

A Divided Electorate: From Block Voting to PR (STV explainer via slides)

STV/PR Doesn't Affect Incumbent Reelection Rates

Projecting Relative Campaign Costs for Two Different Electoral Systems

The Number of Rankings Voters Mark on Their STV ballots

Computerizing a Cambridge Tradition

RCV Implementation in Amherst: Information and Resources

Technically Speaking (1959 School Committee example, Worcester)

1953 Worcester School Committee Analysis With Result Pages

Thresholds and Flow Charts, IRV and STV

PR Thresholds & Worcester At-Large races, 2011-2019

Less Than 8% of Voters Bullet Vote in These STV elections; Here's Where They Happen

Instant Runoff Voting

Why Not Instant Runoff Voting for Legislative Elections?

Instant Runoff Voting: The Problem with Primaries


Turnout Under Different Electoral Systems: It's Complicated

Race & US History

Race, US History and Political Dysfunction

Origin Story: Winner-Take-All Elections in the United States and Its Mentor, Great Britain

What if? US Senator Charles Buckalew Challenged Winner-Take-All in the 1860s

Proportional Alternatives Have Been Available for Over 170 years

Other Countries Have Racial and Ethnic Conflicts, Too; Multiple Political Parties in PR Systems Help Mitigate Them

Voter Suppression Thrives in Winner-Take-All Elections

“Racial Voting” Was Evident in the US Earlier Than You Might Think

Race, Runoffs, and Majority Requirements in Winner-Take-All Elections

Bipartisanship Doesn’t Mean Much Without Representation: What the 1956 Highway Act Means in 2021

From Goldwater to Trump: Racism as Republican Party campaign strategy, 1964-2021

US Winner-Take-All Elections Have Not All Been Single-Winner Elections

E Pluribus Unum: Celebrating a Measure of Diversity in Post-Colonial America

Lani Guinier

No Longer Afraid of Lani Guinier

Voting Rights

Thornburg v Gingles

Voting Rights in Gingles: The Alternative Single Shot Not Taken

The 1986 Gingles Voting Rights Precedent: One Important Step Forward; One Giant Leap Not Taken (a brief summary of above)

Cumulative Voting

Modified At-Large Remedies to Intentional Discrimination in Alabama: Spotlight on Chilton County

Port Chester: Voting Rights in a Small New York Suburb

How cumulative voting Came to Texas School Boards

Cumulative Voting Remedy and Results in Ferguson, MO

Cumulative voting in Peoria

Single Transferable Vote

Anatomy of an STV Voting Rights Remedy in Eastpointe, MI

The “Donut” Compromise in the Desert: STV District Surrounds a Single-Member district

Getting Ahead of the Representation Curve in Albany, GA

Minority Vote Dilution in Yakima County, WA: Districts With an At-Large Twist

Voting Rights Lawsuit Challenges At-Large School Committee Elections in Worcester, MA

Proportional Representation

Principles of Proportionality

PR Cities

Before They Were White: PR and “Ethnicity” in Pre-Voting Rights Act America

Public Policy Issues and PR Municipal Elections: Two Case Studies

Diverse Representation on New York City’s Forgotten Community School Boards

Cross-Community Alliances at Work in Cambridge: the 1989 City council Election

Progressive Era Reform in Ohio

The Enduring Legacy of Inclusive Democracy in Cambridge, MA

Lowell, MA: Choosing Among Different Voting Rights Remedies, Revisiting its PR Past

District and Ethnic Loyalties Under PR (Lowell, MA)

District and Ethnic Loyalties Under Proportional Representation in Worcester, 1949-1959

The 1994 Rent Control Initiative in Massachusetts: A Window into Voting Patterns in Cambridge

Worcester City Council, Geographic Distribution 1949-1959

1994 Preference Voting Event, Worcester

Electing Women

When Running Leads to Winning: Women and PR in Cambridge

Electing Women in Early PR


Nelson Mandela and the Urgent Gift of Proportional Representation

Proportional Representation in a Pandemic

Two Georgias on Our Minds

PR and a National Unity Government in Israel


Not All Zero-Sum Games Are Created Equal

Fulcrum, Jan 5, 2021: What Georgia Teaches Us About the Problems With Winner-Take-All Elections

For Love of the Game

Partisan PR elections in the US

A More Representative State House of Representatives: Illinois, 1870-1980

“Poll: 60 Percent of Voters Say a Viable Third Party Is Needed to Have an Effective Political System” Now What?

New Hampshire’s Multi-Member Legislative Districts Can Set the Nation's Table for STV/PR Reform

Party and Town Preferences in Two NH Multi-Member Districts

Partisan Results in Multi-Member Districts in Grafton County, NH

Districts and Gerrymandering

Political Parties, Race, and the Limits of Redistricting Reform

Voter Self-Districting Under STV

Don't Fix the Maps - Use More Colors, and Don’t Use Winner-Take-All Maps if You Don’t Want Winner-Take-All Elections

William Barr and the Republican Embrace of Race-Based Gerrymandering, 1991-1992

Massachusetts "Hybrid" Cities Have Not Fared Well in Diversifying Representation

The “All Politics is Local” Politician Once Won a Citywide PR Election